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The first tramway line was opened in Istanbul in 1869; this horse tram electrified in 1914. Like in other towns tram was dismantled after the second world war (in 1961 in the european part of Istanbul, in 1966 in the asiatic one) in favour of a bus network.
Parts of the old tram have been recently re-opened: in 1990 in the european zone (1.6 km from Taksim and Tunel), in 2003 in the asiatic zone.
Contermporaneous to the old tram is the so-called Tunel (above mentioned) an underground cable system (570 m long) opened in 1875 and still working (it was the second metro system in the world, after London); another modern underground cable system (600 m long) was opened in 2006 from Kabata Hizli Tramway stop to Taksim metro stop.
In 1989 an LRT line started its service from Aksaray to Kartaltepe (M1); the so-called Hafif Metro system is totally segregated from road traffic and it has been constantly extended up to Ataturk Airport (2002). A second Hafif Metro line (T4, from Edirnekapi to Mescid-i Selam) opened in 2007 followed by its southern extension towards Topkapi on March 2009. So that the whole Hafif Metro system reached the current lenght of 34 km with a remarkable growth of the ridership.
A modern tram line (Hizli Tramway or T1) is in service since 1992; the first stretch from Sirkeci to Topkapi has been extended in 1993 (Topkapi-Zeytinburnu), 1996 (Sirkeci-Eminonu) and 2005 (Sirkeci-Kabatas). Hizli Tramway is currently 14 km long, with 24 stops. A second tram line (T2) from Zeytinburnu to Bagcilar (about 5 km long) opened in 2006.
A traditional metro line (M2) opened in 2000 from Taksim to 4th Levent (8.5 km, 6 stops). 4 Levent - Ataturk Oto Sanayi (5.5 km, 3 stops) and Taksim - Sishane (1.6 km, 1 stop) extensions opened on 30 January 2009, followed by Sanayi-Seyrantepe section (1 km) on 11 November 2010; another extension (Darussafaka-Haciosman) opened on 23 May 2011. The current ridership is 130.000 pax/day.
A modern bus system in reserved lanes placed in the middle of E5 motorway opened in 2007, for the direct connection of Ataturk International Airport to the city center (Topkapi); some innovative APTS Phileas tram-on-tyres have been introduced since the beginning of 2008. APTS vehicles suffered many technical problems caused by the high ridership and the morphology of the track.
Suburban railways also have an important role; the line from Sirkeci railway station to Alkali (in european territory) will be in the next future connected to the Haydarpasa-Gebze line (in asiatic territory), thanks to the so-called Marmaray, an undersea rail tunnel across the Bosphorus Strait. Metro and Hafif Metro extensions up to Yenikapi (where suburban railway stops) are going to increase the interchange potentialities of the whole transport system.
Istanbul-Ulasim (official site)

description uptaded on Sep 5th, 2011

map created on Sep 5th, 2011 (© 2005-2015 Ing. M. Tarozzi)

September 2007Sogutlucesme-Avcilar

LineMetrobus (BRT)
InhabitantsCity 2.800.000, District 7.900.000
Date opening2007
Future development:extension planned at both terminals; extension up to Esentepe (metro stop); in phase Bosphorus crossover up the Asian side
Length (km)20
Track sectionstotally in reserved lanes (in the middle of E5 motorway)
Stops15 1400 m
Platform doors--
general characteristics--
n. of vehicles50
n. of cars per vehicle--
Typerubber tyres mono-directional
Vehicle dimensions (m)length 26, width --
Vehicle capacity (pax)200 (39 seated)
Current/Voltage diesel engines+batteries
Guide/gauge magnetic markers every 4-5 m along the track
Speed Km/hComm --, Max --
Accel./Decel. (m/sec2)--
System capacity8.000 pphpd
Total cost63 M Euro (first phase)
System builderAPTS
NOTEtechnical problems for APTS vehicles caused by high ridership and track morphology
technical data uptaded on Jan 29th, 2011